The urological disease is a broader term that houses various conditions related to the filtering and carrying urine out of the body. Common urology diseases can strike men, women, and children of all ages. Moreover, these diseases can affect particular parts of the body. In females, they affect the urinary tract, whereas, in males, they affect the urinary tract or the reproductive organs.
Following are some of the most common urology diseases often found in people:
1- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition with an enlarged prostate. In this condition, there is an increase in the size of the prostate gland. BPH is quite common in older men. However, it is not directly connected to prostate cancer that many people confuse it with being.
The enlarged prostate puts pressure on the urethra that causes the symptoms of BPH. The urethra is the narrow canal that carries urine from the bladder to the out of the body.
Men with this condition may experience a persistent urge to urinate. They may also experience a weak urine stream when they go and feel that the bladder is not empty after urination. Severe cases need to be treated with surgery. However, mild and normal BPH cases can be treated with some prescribed medications and dietary changes.
2- Urinary Incontinence
Urinary incontinence is a condition in which people lose their bladder control. It follows in the unwanted leakage of urine at any time. It is an inconvenient and embarrassing condition, but it is far from uncommon. According to a report, more than 15 million people in the world have urine incontinence annually.
Several things can cause incontinence. A few of the most common causes include:
- Pregnancy or childbirth
- Overactive bladder
- Enlarged prostate
- Weak bladder muscles
- Weak sphincter muscles that support the urethra
- Urinary tract infections
- Diseases including Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis
- Injury to the spinal cord
- Severe constipation
Sometimes, several notable lifestyle changes such as controlling fluid intake can be enough to address this problem. If these approaches prove futile, your doctor may suggest surgery to fix the underlying cause.
3- Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
UTIs are produced because of the pathogenic bacteria or viruses that attack the urinary tract and cause infection. They are much more prevalent in women, although men can get them too. According to reports, about 40 percent of females and 12 percent of males will have a UTI that can cause obvious symptoms at some point in their lives. A burning sensation during urination is one of the most common symptoms of a UTI. Other symptoms include a frequent urge to urinate and the feeling that the bladder is not empty after urinating. However, antibiotics can usually clear up most UTIs within five to seven days. Prevalent UTIs might require lifestyle and dietary changes, but they are manageable.
4- Kidney and Ureteral Stones
Stones form in the kidneys when crystals in the urine get surrounded by small particles and collect on these crystals. Ureteral stones move from the kidney into the ureter, the canals that carry urine to the bladder.
These stones can hinder urine flow and cause a significant amount of pain. Most people end up discharging small stones from the body without medical help, but larger stones often result in blockage, which is problematic and requires medical assistance.
Medical or surgical procedures may be needed in cases with larger stones to remove them. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used methods. The method involves using sound waves to break stones into smaller pieces so that they can easily pass in the urine without causing much pain or discomfort.
Other Common Urology Diseases
Some other common urological conditions are:
- Prostate cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Bladder prolapse
- Hematuria (blood in the urine)
- Erectile dysfunction (ED)
- Interstitial cystitis also called painful bladder syndrome
- Overactive bladder
- Prostatitis, which is the swelling of the prostate gland
Following is the general guideline and tips to improve urological conditions in men, women, and children:
- Stay hydrated all the time
- Drink cranberry juice as it helps prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
- Limit the quantity of salt and caffeine you consume daily
- Maintain a healthy weight range
- Adopt a smoke-free lifestyle
- Reinforce the muscles of the pelvic area with Kegel exercises
- Encourage children to urinate before bed
- Restrict fluid intake in the nighttime hours
- Purchase athletic cups for young boys to assist in preventing injury
- Educate young girls that they should use a front-to-back motion to wipe the genital area after using the toilet
These general guidelines can help people a lot in managing their urological conditions.